Dossier: The meanings, consequences, and geopolitics of deportation

March 18th, 2024

In recent debates, deportation has become a political ambition in a way that does not anymore question the possibility and necessity of a more efficient deportation apparatus. Yet, many studies have been showing for a long time how complex and problematic the implementation of deportation is, that deportation is embedded in complex geopolitical considerations, often are problematic from a (human) rights perspective, and last but not least, have devastating impact on the lives of the deported. This list has been compiled to make these critical aspects more known in public debates. It is addressed not only to researchers and students, but also to journalists and the wider interested public.

Why a dossier on deportations?

In recent political and public debates, deportation has become a political ambition shared by mainstream political actors. In the wake of the so-called migration crisis, the fiction of a “seamless” and “efficient” deportation system is put forward as both feasible and the only way to safeguard a common European asylum system, EU cohesion and democracy. Politicians and policy-makers frequently call for increased deportations, like German Chancellor Scholz in a Spiegel cover interview in October 2023. This is despite the fact migration researchers have long shown how complex and problematic the implementation of deportation are, and embedded in complex geopolitical considerations (see below). At the heart of these debates, we often find the argument that rising numbers of asylum seekers overwhelm national administration and threaten cultural and social unity, making higher deportation numbers and all political efforts to reach those inevitable. These arguments side-line aspects of (human) rights and existing European and national law, the costs involved in forcing non-EU countries to accept deportations, as well as the overall hegemonic geopolitical order grounded in racism that shapes migration governance and creates deportation in the first place.

Plans to include increased deportations in asylum proceedings have become regular news items, not least the planned outsourcing of asylum procedures from the UK to Rwanda, as well as from Italy to Albania. Similar ideas are currently under discussion in the German context (Lambert and Lemberg-Pedersen 2023). The 2024 reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) makes deportation to so-called safe third countries easier, and will likely lead to a proliferation of migrant detention around Europe to enforce deportation, as well as enhance inter-European deportation and “deportation diplomacy” as a means of “solidarity” among states. This normalisation of deportations makes extremist positions increasingly vocal. This is evident in the recently leaked plans amongst fascist hardliners in Germany for mass deportations (under the auspices of “remigration”) for not only those deemed as “foreigners”, but also German citizens with an immigrant background and those in solidarity with people on the move. These extreme right wing demands cannot be detached from the wider political and public debates on a perceived ineffectiveness of the current German and European deportation infrastructure that are increasingly pushed to increase numbers. They build on a history of (calling for) deportations, and strengthen the idea that the only way forward is through increased deportations.

Institutionally, deportations have been a central policy field in Europe following the reconfiguration of the common European migration approach, the CEAS, that emerged from the 1995 Schengen agreement. The common agenda has always been guided by the idea of unwanted mobility (from so-called “others”) as a threat only to be resolved by securitised approaches towards migration governance (Bigo 2015, Huysman 2000). This securitised approach has contributed to the idea of making certain groups of people on the move “illegal”, in order words producing their illegality (de Genova and Peutz 2010).

Hence, it comes to little surprise that early “cooperation” instruments with non-EU countries in the field of migration have centred on leveraging EU deportation interests. The first instrument following the Global Approach to Migration, Mobility Partnerships (2005), migration partnerships, aimed to make deportation more attractive to non-EU states by linking it to visa facilitation agreements and so-called border capacity building. Since then, the EU has continuously aimed at enhancing its position vis-a-vis non-EU states to push them to agree to more deportation (Zanker et al 2020).

As many ‘countries of origin’ refuse to agree to formal migration agreements that include binding deportation cooperation mechanisms, informalization of agreement has since marked the growing policy field, both on the side of the EU, where the European Parliament has been excluded from public scrutiny, as well as in non-EU countries, where the conclusion of “deals” is often marked by the absence of public scrutiny.

Research has long analysed these processes and pointed to the fallacies behind them, including in the current political course of the EU and its member states. Their findings have underlined the structural violence reproduced by state practices. Critical work has further cautioned that deportations as a policy instrument map onto racialized ideas of exclusion (Mayblin and Turner 2021, Achiume 2019). However, these findings and positions are underrepresented in political and public debates.

Calling for and carrying out deportation and detention is used by centre-left, centre, and centre-right parties and is inscribed in liberal violence that reproduces and depoliticises racialization, and has severe impact on the rule of law and democratic accountability within the EU and non-EU states. It comes at a great cost of human rights and dignity. It is in light of this that we offer this bibliography to provide an overview of academic literature for researchers, students, journalists and the wider public interested in a more nuanced view on deportations, the repercussions for illegalized populations and countries of origin. We have collected literature along the following themes:

  • Deportations and the construction of (racial) difference and il/legality
  • Life for deportees and their families
  • Activism around deportation
  • The geopolitics of deportation
  • Meaning for countries on the receiving-end of deportations
  • Imaginaries and practices of deporting states
  • Alternatives to deportation

The primary focus is on the EU and Africa, but other examples are also included. The list was compiled by Judith Altrogge, Leonie Jegen, Laura Lambert & Franzisca Zanker. Further suggestions are welcome.

Deportations and the construction of (racial) difference and il/legality

  • Anderson, Bridget. 2013. Us and Them? The Dangerous Politics of Immigration Control. First ed. Oxford, United Kingdom ; New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Clayton Boeyink, Nina Sahraoui, and Elsa Tyszler. 2022. "Situating the Coloniality of Encampment and Deportation as a Mode of Mobility Governance: Insights from Ceuta and Melilla, Mayotte and Tanzania." In Postcoloniality and Forced Migration. Bristol, UK: Bristol University Press.
  • Crawley, Heaven, and Dimitris Skleparis. 2018. “Refugees, Migrants, Neither, Both: Categorical Fetishism and the Politics of Bounding in Europe’s ‘Migration Crisis’” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44 (1): 48-64.
  • De Genova, Nicholas. 2002. “Migrant 'Illegality' and Deportability in Everyday Life.” Annual Review of Anthropology 31 (1): 419–447.
  • Graebsch, Christine. 2022. "Crimmigration and Pre-Crime in German Law: Connecting the International Debate to the German National (Legal) Context." Kriminologisches Journal 54 (1): 16-35. Open Access:
  • Jansen, Yolande, Robin Celikates, and Joost de Bloois (eds.). 2015. The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe: Detention, Deportation, Drowning. London, New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Kalir, Barak. 2019. "Departheid: The Draconian Governance of Illegalized Migrants in Western States." Conflict and Society 5 (1): 19-40.
  • Korvensyrjä, Aino. 2024. "Criminalizing Black Solidarity: Dublin Deportations, Raids, and Racial Statecraft in Southern Germany." Identities 31 (1): 104-122.
  • Küffner, Carla. 2022. Un/doing Deportation – Die Arbeit an der Ausreisepflicht. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
  • Sharma, Nandita. 2020. Home Rule: National Sovereignty and the Separation of Natives and Migrants. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Walters, William. 2002. "Deportation, Expulsion, and the International Police of Aliens." Citizenship Studies 6 (3): 265-292. https://10.1080/1362102022000011612.
  • Walters, William. 2016. "The Flight of the Deported: Aircraft, Deportation, and Politics." Geopolitics 21 (2): 435-458. https://10.1080/14650045.2015.1089234.
  • Walters, William. 2024. "The Deportation Plane: Charter Flights and Carceral Mobilities." Mobilities. https://10.1080/17450101.2024.2304857.

Life for deportees and their families

  • Alpes, M.J., (2017), “Bad luck, bad behaviour and laziness: an ethnographic outlook on the causes of deportations in Anglophone Cameroon”, Mondi Migranti (2).
  • Alpes, M. J., (2015), “Airport casualties: Non- admission return risks at times of externalised and internalised migration control”, Social Sciences. 4(3): 742- 757.
  • Alpes, M.J., (2019), “Unravelling the legal consciousness of deportation policies through women’s bushfalling narratives in Anglophone Cameroon”, in Hillmann, F., Spaan, E., and van Naerssen, T., (eds.), Migration Mobilities: the Migrant Actor in transnational space.
  • Altrogge, Judith. "Income prospect trajectories after state-induced return from Germany to the Gambia: Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration as ‘slow deportation.’" Sozialpolitik.Ch, 2 (2023).
  • Andersson, Ruben. 2014. "Time and the Migrant Other. European Border Controls and the Temporal Economics of Illegality." American Anthropologist 116 (4): 795–809. https://10.1111/aman.12148.
  • Boyer, Florence. 2017. "Les migrants nigériens expulsés d’Arabie Saoudite." Espace populations sociétés (2017/1). https://10.4000/eps.7088.
  • Bosworth, Mary. 2014. Inside Immigration Detention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. 2004. “Theorising Return Migration: The Conceptual Approach to Return Migrants Revisited.” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 6 (2): 253–79.
  • Dako-Gyeke, Mavis, and Richard Baffo Kodom. 2017. “Deportation and Re-integration: Exploring Challenges Faced by Deportee Residents in the Nkoranza Municipality, Ghana.” Journal of International Migration & Integration 18 (4): 1083-1103.
  • Drotbohm, Heike. 2015. “The Reversal of Migratory Family Lives: A Cape Verdean Perspective on Gender and Sociality Pre- and Post-Deportation.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (4): 653–70.
  • Drotbohm, Heike, and Ines Hasselberg. 2015. “Deportation, Anxiety, Justice: New Ethnographic Perspectives.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (4): 551–62.
  • Fresia, Marion. 2009. Les Mauritaniens réfugiés au Sénégal. Une anthropologie critique de l'asile et de l'aide humanitaire. Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Galvin, Treasa M. 2015. “‘We Deport Them but They Keep Coming Back’: The Normalcy of Deportation in the Daily Life of ‘Undocumented’ Zimbabwean Migrant Workers in Botswana.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (4): 617–34.
  • Gonzalez, Nelly, and Melissa Morgan. 2012. "The aftermath of deportation: Effects on the family." Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology 46 (3): 459-467.
  • Griffiths, Melanie. 2014. "Out of Time. The Temporal Uncertainties of Refused Asylum Seekers and Immigration Detainees." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 (12): 1991–2009.
  • Kleist, Nauja. 2017. “Disrupted Migration Projects: The Moral Economy of Involuntary Return to Ghana from Libya.” Africa 87 (2): 322–42.
  • Lindberg, Annika. 2022. "Feeling difference: Race, migration, and the affective infrastructure of a Danish detention camp." Incarceration 3 (1).
  • Maâ, Anissa. 2023. “Autonomy of Migration in the Light of Deportation. Ethnographic and Theoretical Accounts of Entangled Appropriations of Voluntary Returns from Morocco.” Environment and Planning: Society and Space 41(1): 92–109.
  • Plambech, Sine. 2017. “Sex, Deportation and Rescue: Economies of Migration among Nigerian Sex Workers.” Feminist Economics 23 (3): 134–59.
  • Ratia, Emma, and Catrien Notermans. 2012. “I was crying, I did not come back with anything”: Women’s Experiences of Deportation from Europe to Nigeria.” African Diaspora 5 (2): 143-164.
  • Schuster, Liza, and Nassim, Majidi. 2015. “Deportation Stigma and Re-Migration.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (4): 635–52.
  • Willen, Sarah. 2007. “Toward a Critical Phenomenology of ‘Illegality’: State Power, Criminalization, and Objectivity among Undocumented Migrant Workers in Tel Aviv, Israel.” International Migration 45 (3): 8–38.

Activism around deportation

  • Eule, Tobias G., David Loher, and Anna Wyss. 2018. "Contested Control at the Margins of the State." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44 (16): 2717–2729.
  • Fischer, Nicolas. 2015. "Justice for Immigrants. The Work of Magistrates in Deportation Proceedings." At the Heart of the State. The Moral World of Institutions, edited by Didier Fassin et al., 40–66. London: Pluto Press (Anthropology, Culture and Society).
  • Karyotis, Georgios, Dimitris Skleparis, and Stratos Patrikios. 2022. "New Migrant Activism: Frame Alignment and Future Protest Participation." The British Journal of Politics and International Relations 24 (2): 381–400.
  • Kirchhoff, Maren, and David Lorenz. 2018. "Between Illegalization, Toleration, and Recognition: Contested Asylum and Deportation Policies in Germany." In Protest Movements in Deportation and Asylum, edited by Sieglinde Rosenberger, Verena Stern, and Nina Merhaut, 48–68. Springer.
  • Korvensyrjä, Aino, and Rex Osa. 2022. "Deportation Monitoring in Germany and Nigeria: Asymmetric Strategies, Solidarity and Activist Knowledge Production." antiAtlas Journal (5).
  • Lecadet, Clara. 2012. "From Migrant Destitution to Self-Organization into Transitory National Communities: The Revival of Citizenship in Post-Deportation Experience in Mali." In The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation, edited by Bridget Anderson, Matthew J. Gibney, and Emanuela Paoletti, 143–58. New York, NY: Springer New York.
  • Lecadet, Clara, and Étienne Balibar. 2016. Le manifeste des expulsés. Errance, survie et politique au Mali. Tours: Presses Universitaires François-Rabelais.
  • Lecadet, Clara. 2017. "Europe Confronted by Its Expelled Migrants. Politics of Expelled Migrants’ Associations in Africa." In The Borders of "Europe". Autonomy of Migration, Tactics of Bordering, edited by Nicholas de Genova. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Lecadet, Clara. 2018. "Post-Deportation Movements: Forms and Conditions of the Struggle Amongst Self-Organising Expelled Migrants in Mali and Togo." In After Deportation, edited by Shahram Khosravi, 187–204. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Marino, Rossella, Joris Schapendonk, and Ine Lietaert. 2023. "Translating Europe’s Return Migration Regime to the Gambia : The Incorporation of Local CSOs." Geopolitics 28 (3): 1033–1033.
  • Nyers, Peter. 2010. "Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement." In The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement, edited by Nicholas De Genova and Nathalie Mae Peutz, 413–42. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.
  • Rosenberger, Sieglinde, Verena Stern, and Nina Merhaut (Eds.). 2018. Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation. Springer International Publishing.
  • Tazzioli, Martina. 2018. "The Temporal Borders of Asylum. Temporality of Control in the EU Border Regime." Political Geography 64: 13–22.
  • Zanker, Franzisca, and Judith Altrogge. 2019. "The Political Influence of Return: From Diaspora to Libyan Transit Returnees." International Migration 57 (4): 167–80.

The geopolitics of deportation

  • Adam, Ilke, Florian Trauner, Leonie Jegen & Christof Roos 2020. “West African interests in (EU) migration policy. Balancing domestic priorities with external incentives.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 46(15), pp. 3101–3118.
  • Carrera, Sergio, Santos Vara, Juan, & Strik, Thomas (Eds.). (2019). Constitutionalising the External Dimensions of EU Migration Policies in Times of Crisis: Legality, Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights Reconsidered. Edward Elgar.
  • El Qadim, Nora. 2014. “Postcolonial Challenges to Migration Control: French-Moroccan Cooperation Practices on Forced Returns.” Security Dialogue 45(3): 242–61.
  • Gazzotti, Lorenzo, Melissa Mouthaan & Katharina Natter. (2023). ‘Embracing complexity in “Southern” migration governance’, Territory, Politics, Governance, 11(4), pp. 625–637.
  • Gary-Tounkara, Daouda (2015): A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983. In: International Journal of Conflict and Violence 9(1), 25–38.
  • Lambert, Laura, and Martin Lemberg-Pedersen. 2023. “Europe Outsourcing Asylum to African Countries Is a Terrible Idea – There Are Alternatives.” The Conversation. April 18, 2023.
  • Mayblin, Lucy, and Joe Turner. 2020. Migration Studies and Colonialism. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Mouthaan, Melissa (2019) ‘Unpacking domestic preferences in the policy-“receiving” state: the EU’s migration cooperation with Senegal and Ghana’, Comparative Migration Studies, 7(1), 1–20.
  • Olakpe, Oreva (2022). Views on migration partnerships from the ground: Lessons from Nigeria. International Migration, 60(4), 28–37.
  • Schapendonk, Joris, Matthieu Bolay & Janine Dahinden (2020): The conceptual limits of the ‘migration journey’. De-exceptionalising mobility in the context of West African trajectories. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–17.
  • Special Issue “Abschiebung global” (in German). Peripherie 156 (3/2019).
  • Van Criekinge, Tine. 2010. “The EU-Africa Migration Partnership: A Case Study of the EU’s Migration Dialogue with Ghana and Senegal.” In European University Institute, Florence, Italy.
  • Fakhoury, Tamirace, and Zeynep S. Mencütek. 2023. “The Geopolitics of Return Migration in the International System.” Geopolitics 28 (3): 959–78.
  • Zaiotti, Ruben (2016): Externalizing Migration Management. Europe, North America and the Spread of 'Remote Control' Practices. London: Routledge, 3–30.

Meaning for countries on the receiving-end of deportations

  • Cham, Omar, and Ilke Adam. 2023. "Justifying Opposition and Support to EU‐Africa Cooperation on Deportation in West Africa." Governance.
  • Kandilige, Leander, and Geraldine Adiku. 2019. "The Quagmire of Return and Reintegration: Challenges to Multi-Stakeholder Co-Ordination of Involuntary Returns." International Migration 58 (4): 37–53.
  • Weber, Rosa, and Douglas S. Massey. March 2023. "Assessing the Effect of Increased Deportations on Mexican Migrants’ Remittances and Savings Brought Home." Population Research and Policy Review 42 (24).
  • Fine, Shoshana, and William Walters. 2022. "No Place Like Home? The International Organization for Migration and the New Political Imaginary of Deportation." Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 48 (13): 3060–3077.
  • Zanker, Franzisca, and Judith Altrogge. 2022. "Protective Exclusion as a Postcolonial Strategy: Rethinking Deportations and Sovereignty in The Gambia." Security Dialogue 53 (5): 475–93.
  • Zanker, Franzisca, Judith Altrogge, Kwaku Arhin-Sam, and Leonie Jegen. 2019. “Challenges in EU-African Migration Cooperation: West African Perspectives on Forced Return.” MEDAM Policy Brief, no. 2019/5.
  • Zanker, Franzisca. 2023. "A Typology of Resistance: The ‘Hot Potato’ of European Return in West Africa." Territory, Politics, Governance online first (April): 1–20.

Imaginaries and practices of deporting states

  • Andrijasevic, Rutvica. 2010. "DEPORTED. The Right to Asylum at EU's External Border of Italy and Libya." International Migration 48 (1): 148–174.
  • Bartels, Inken and Simon Sperling: Erzwungene Freiwilligkeit. Zur Produktion von Returnability im europäischen Grenzregime des 21. Jahrhunderts.
  • Bigo, Didier. 2015. “Death in the Mediterranean Sea: The Results of the Three Fields of Action of EU Border Controls.” The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe. Definition, Deportation, Drowning. Rowman & Littlefield International.
  • Bloch, Alice, and Liza Schuster. 2005. “At the Extremes of Exclusion: Deportation, Detention and Dispersal.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 28 (3): 491–512.
  • Bhatia, Monish, and Victoria Canning. 2020. "Misery as Business: How Immigration Detention Became a Cash Cow in Britain’s Borders." In Marketisation and Privatisation in Criminal Justice, 16. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. Retrieved February 28, 2024, from
  • Borrelli, Lisa Marie, and William Walters. 2024. "Blood, Sweat and Tears: On the Corporeality of Deportation." Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space.
  • Borrelli, Lisa Marie, and Annika Lindberg. 2018. "The Creativity of Coping: Alternative Tales of Moral Dilemmas among Migration Control Officers." International Journal of Migration and Border Studies 4(3).
  • Borrelli, Lisa Marie and Annika Lindberg. 2019. "Paperwork Performances: Legitimating State Violence in the Swedish Deportation Regime." Journal of Legal Anthropology.
  • Borrelli, Lisa Marie, Annika Lindberg, and Anna Wyss. 2022. "States of Suspicion: How Institutionalised Disbelief Shapes Migration Control Regimes." Geopolitics 27 (4): 1025–1041. https://10.1080/14650045.2021.2005862.
  • Danso, Sunkung and Intan Soeparna. 2020. “European Union Immigration Law and the Deportation of Gambian Nationals from Germany.” Migration and Development, 1–17.
  • De Genova, Nicholas, and Nathalie Mae Peutz (Eds.). 2010. The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
  • Ellermann, Antje. 2009. States Against Migrants: Deportation in Germany and the United States. Cambridge University Press.
  • Fakhoury, Tamirace. 2021. “Refugee Return and Fragmented Governance in the Host State: Displaced Syrians in the Face of Lebanon’s Divided Politics.” Third World Quarterly 42 (1): 162–80.
  • Gibney, Matthew J. 2008. “Asylum and the Expansion of Deportation in the United Kingdom.” Government and Opposition 43(2): 146–67.
  • Huysmans, Jef. 2000. “The European Union and the Securitization of Migration.” JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 38 (5): 751–77.
  • Kalir, Barak, and Lieke Wissink. 2016. "The Deportation Continuum: Convergences between State Agents and NGO Workers in the Dutch Deportation Field." Citizenship Studies 20 (1): 34–49. DOI: https://10.1080/13621025.2015.1107025.
  • Koch, Anne. 2014. “The Politics and Discourse of Migrant Return: The Role of UNHCR and IOM in the Governance of Return.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40 (6): 905–23.
  • Leerkes, Arjen, and Marieke Van Houte. 2020. "Beyond the Deportation Regime: Differential State Interests and Capacities in Dealing with (Non-) Deportability in Europe." Citizenship Studies 24 (3): 319–338.
  • Lindberg, Anika, and Stanley Edward. 2021. "Contested Dreams, Stolen Futures: Struggles Over Hope in the European Deportation Regime." In Stealing Time, edited by M. Bhatia and V. Canning. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • McNeill, Henrietta. 2023. "Deportation as a Neo-Colonial Act: How Deporting State Influence Extends Beyond the Border." Political Geography 102.
  • Mountz, Alison, Kate Coddington, R. Tina Catania, and Jenna M. Loyd. 2013. "Conceptualizing Detention: Mobility, Containment, Bordering, and Exclusion." Progress in Human Geography 37 (4): 522–541. https://10.1177/0309132512460903.
  • Noronha, Luke de. 2019. “Deportation, Racism and Multi-Status Britain: Immigration Control and the Production of Race in the Present.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 42 (14): 2413–30.
  • Schäfer, Rita. 2020. “Deportationen aus Südafrika. Heutige und Historische Politische Kontexte Und Abschiebepraktiken.” PERIPHERIE 39(156).
  • Sylla, Almamy and Susanne Schultz. 2019. "Mali: Abschiebungen als Postkoloniale Praxis." PERIPHERIE 39(3): 389–411.
  • Sutton, Rebecca, and Darshan Vigneswaran. 2011. “A Kafkaesque State: Deportation and Detention in South Africa.” Citizenship Studies 15 (5): 627–42.
  • Wagner, Florian. 2023. "Ausweisungsgrund: 'Außereuropäisch'. People of Color und die Entstehung des bundesdeutschen Abschieberegimes." Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History, Online-Ausgabe, 20(1): 51-84.
  • Walters, William. 2010. “Deportation, Expulsion, and the International Police of Aliens.” In The Deportation Regime: Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement, edited by Nicholas De Genova and Nathalie Mae Peutz, 69–100.

Alternatives to deportation

  • Achiume, E. Tendayi. 2019. “Migration as Decolonization.” Stan. L. Rev. 71: 1509–74.
  • Cházaro, Angélica. 2021. "The End of Deportation." UCLA Law Review 69: 1040.
  • Foroutan, Naika. 2019. Die postmigrantische Gesellschaft. Ein Versprechen der pluralen Demokratie. Transcript.
  • Hlass, Laila. 2022. "Lawyering from a Deportation Abolition Ethic." California Law Review 110: 1597. Tulane Public Law Research Paper No. 21-9.
  • Panagiotidis, Jannis. 2023. "Ist Bleiberecht Menschenrecht? Abschiebungen, Menschenrechte und Freizügigkeit in historischer Perspektive". Zeithistorische Forschungen/Studies in Contemporary History 20, no. 1: 141-155.

Photo credits: (cc) Timothy J