Inventory of the bilateral agreements linked to readmission

About the inventory

The inventory was created in 2006. It is updated on a monthly basis. Since its inception, the need for a dual approach has become evident in order to capture states’ bilateral agreements and arrangements linked to readmission.

What is a dual approach?

For many decades, cooperation on readmission has been bilaterally practiced while gaining tremendous momentum in bilateral and multilateral talks.

Bilateral agreements may be formalized, as is often the case, through the conclusion of standard readmission agreements based on reciprocal obligations. However, making an inventory of bilateral standard readmission agreements would never suffice to capture the various cooperative mechanisms that have been designed to facilitate the expulsion of foreigners viewed as being irregular.

Under certain circumstances, two states may agree to conclude a bilateral agreement or arrangement without necessarily formalizing their cooperation. They may decide to graft readmission onto a broader framework of bilateral cooperation (e.g. police cooperation agreements including a clause on readmission, administrative arrangements, and partnership agreements) or to deal with it through other channels (e.g. by using exchanges of letters and memoranda of understanding). Among others, the rationale for such non-standard agreements is to respond flexibly to various contingencies over time. Many EU Member States, as well as other countries around the world, have concluded such bilateral non-standard agreements in order to address re-documentation and the delivery of travel documents or laissez-passers to remove foreigners who are viewed or defined as being irregular.

This dual approach explains why it is important to talk about agreements linked to readmission, for it encompasses agreements that can be standard and non-standard. You can view this graphto understand how both standard and non-standard agreements linked to readmission intersect. Otherwise, if you wish to know more about the expansion of the EU’s readmission system and its drivers, please click here.

Full titleInventory of the bilateral agreements linked to readmission
Media typeWebsite
Topics Detention, Deportation & Pushbacks
Regions Europe, North Africa

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